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嘉祥县玉池石材销售有限公司

电话:15232955728

赵经理:18630207668

张经理:15965709986

地址:济宁市嘉祥县纸坊镇西焦村南500米(敬老院南50米路西)

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古建筑屋顶构造知识
一、琉璃瓦屋面
One, glazed tile roof
琉璃瓦是表面施釉的瓦,其规格大小从二样至九样有八种,在古代琉璃瓦只用于宫殿建筑。如清代就有严格的规定,亲王、世子、郡王只能用绿色的琉璃瓦或绿剪边,只有皇宫和庙宇才能用黄色琉璃瓦或黄剪边,离宫别馆和皇家园林建筑可以用黑、蓝、紫、翡翠等颜色及由各色琉璃瓦组成的“琉璃集锦”屋面。
Glazed tiles are glazed tiles on the surface, and their sizes range from two to nine. There are eight kinds of glazed tiles in palaces. If the Qing Dynasty has strict regulations, the prince, the son and the prince can only use green glaze tiles or green shears, only the Imperial Palace and the temple can use yellow glazed tiles or yellow scissors. The palace buildings can use the color of black, blue, purple and jade and the "glaze collection" roofs composed of colored glazed tiles.
主要做法:
The main practice:

1.单色琉璃屋面:屋面和屋脊均采用同色琉璃瓦件形成。单色琉璃屋面多用于宫殿建筑,如北京天坛,全部采用蓝色琉璃;太和殿全部采用黄色琉璃瓦。
1. monochromatic glazed Roofs: roofs and roofs are made of coloured glazed tiles. Monochromatic glazed roofs are mostly used for palaces, such as Tiantan in Beijing, all use blue glazed tiles, and the hall of Taihe all uses yellow glazed tiles.

2.琉璃剪边:用琉璃瓦做檐头和屋脊,用削割瓦或布瓦做屋面,或者用一种颜色的琉璃瓦做屋面,用另一种颜色的琉璃瓦做檐头和屋脊。前一种多见于城楼与庙宇,后一种多见于园林建筑,但也可用于一般的宫殿或寺庙建筑,宋元以前的“剪边”,琉璃只用在屋脊,不用在檐头,不像明清时期的剪边屋面具有鲜明的边框效果。
2. glaze cut edge: use glazed tile to make eaves and roof ridges, use cutting tiles or cloth tiles to make roofs, or use one color glazed tile to make roofs, and use another color glaze tile to make eaves and roof ridges. The former is more common in the city building and the temple, and the latter is more common in the garden architecture, but it can also be used in the general palace or temple building. Before the song and Yuan Dynasties, the "cut edge", glaze used only in the ridge, not in the eaves, unlike the cut edge of the Ming and Qing Dynasties with sharp border effect.

3.琉璃聚锦:在屋面上采用两色琉璃或多色琉璃拼出图案的作法,常见的图案有方胜(菱形)、叠落方胜(双菱形)、双喜字等。琉璃聚锦的做法见于园林建筑或地方庙宇建筑。
3. glaze polybrocade: the use of two colored glaze or polycolored glazed glaze on the roof of the design of the design, the common pattern is to win (rhombus), stacked square wins (double diamond shaped), double joy and so on. The practice of coloured glazed brocade is seen in landscape architecture or local temples.

4.削割瓦屋面:削割瓦始于明永乐初年,最初为不施釉的琉璃瓦坯子,颜色介于浅红与黄白之间。清乾隆时期又增加了一种浅灰色的削割瓦,是在坯料烧成后,再入普通砖瓦窑经“窨青”工艺制成的。削割瓦应遵循琉璃规矩,即削割瓦虽无釉面,但从等级和做法角度讲,属琉璃屋面。其规格尺寸、屋脊造型和仙人走兽的用法等,与琉璃完全相同。
4. cut tile roof: cut tile began in the early years of Ming Yongle, initially glazed glazed tile without glaze, and the color was between light red and yellow white. During the Qing Qianlong period, a kind of light gray cutting tile was added to the brick tile kiln after the firing of the billet. The cutting tile should follow the rules of glazed glaze, that is, although the cutting tile has no glaze, it is a glazed roof from the angle of grade and practice. The size, the shape of the roof and the usage of the fairies are exactly the same as those of the glazed glaze.

二、布瓦屋面
Two, cloth tile roof
颜色呈深灰色的黏土瓦称为布瓦,当区别于琉璃屋面时,常被称为黑活屋面或墨瓦屋面。布瓦(或黑活)屋面有多种做法,所以常根据不同的做法直呼其名,如筒瓦屋面、合瓦屋面、干搓瓦屋面等,只有在特指不是琉璃屋面时才说“布瓦”或“黑活”屋面。布瓦的规格从特号至十号共五种。从布瓦泥料的糙细程度上分,有普通瓦、细泥瓦和澄浆瓦,其中澄浆瓦的质量最好。时至今日已经没有没有细泥瓦和澄浆瓦。
The clay tile with dark gray color is called tile. When it is different from the glazed roof, it is often called the black live roof or the tile roof. There are a variety of ways for the roofs of cloth tiles (or black live), so they often call their names according to different methods, such as the roofing of the tiles, the roofing of the tiles, the roofing of the tiles, and so on. Only when they are not on the glazed roofs, they can say "cloth tiles" or "black live" roofs. The specifications of the cloth tiles from the special number to the ten are five. From the degree of roughness of the bowa clay, there are common tiles, fine tiles and clear tiles, of which the quality of the pulp is the best. Up to now, there is no fine tile and tile.

1.筒瓦屋面:以弧形片状的板瓦做底瓦,半圆形的筒瓦做盖瓦的屋面作法为筒瓦屋面。它常用于宫殿、庙宇、王府、县衙等大式建筑,以及牌楼、影壁、亭榭、游廊等。小式建筑中不得使用3号以上筒瓦。民宅中的影壁、小型门楼、看面墙、廊子、垂花门等虽然也使用筒瓦,但仅限于十号筒瓦。山西、陕西等地的民居则不受此限。
1. the tile roofs: the tile roofs made of arc shaped flakes, and the half round shaped tiles as the tile roofing. It is commonly used in palaces, temples, royal houses, county offices and other large buildings, as well as archways, screen walls, pavilion pavilions, veranda and so on. No more than 3 tube tiles are not used in small style buildings. The shadow walls, mini gatehouses, looking walls, portico and flower doors are also used in tile houses, but are restricted to No. ten tile. Dwellings in Shanxi, Shaanxi and other places are not subject to this limit.
筒瓦屋面的传统作法是,要用灰把底瓦垄与盖瓦垄之间抹严,叫做“夹垄”。还要用灰把每块筒瓦的接缝处用灰勾严,叫做“捉节”,合称“捉节夹垄”。筒瓦表面不再裹抹灰浆。20世纪80年代初出现了“裹垄”作法,即在筒瓦的外表面用灰裹成筒状。裹垄作法最初只是作为修缮手段,不用于新瓦屋面。这种作法不如“捉节夹垄”后的瓦垄清秀,但可以弥补由于筒瓦的质量造成瓦垄不顺的缺点。介于两者之间的作法叫“半捉半裹”,这种作法既能弥补某些筒瓦的参差不齐,又能保持“捉节夹垄”作法的风格。
The traditional practice of the tile roofing is to use the ash to smear the ridges between the bottom and the ridge. It is also necessary to use ash to make the joints of each tile close by grey, called "catching the festival". The grout is no longer covered on the surface of the tube. At the beginning of 1980s, there was a "wrapping ridge" method, that is, the outer surface of the tile was wrapped in ash. The ridge wrapping method was originally used as a means of repair and not for new tile roofing. This method is not as good as the ridge of the ridge after catching the ridge, but it can make up for the disadvantage of the uneven quality of the tiles due to the quality of the tile. The practice between the two is called "half capture and half wrapped". This method can not only make up for some uneven tiles, but also keep the style of "catching the ridge and the ridge".
清代中期以前,筒瓦的作法比较简单,一是睁眼(盖瓦与底瓦的距离)较小,二是不夹垄,用瓦刀直接将盖瓦泥顺瓦翅切齐。
Before the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the operation of the shingle was simple, the first was to open the eyes (the distance between the cover tile and the bottom), and the two was not to clamp the ridge.

嘉祥县玉池石材销售有限公司

  1. 电话:15232955728
  2. 赵经理:18630207668
  3. 张经理:15965709986
  4. 网址:www.yuanlingujian.com.cn
  5. 地址:济宁市嘉祥县纸坊镇西焦村南500米(敬老院南50米路西)
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